Context: The involvement of private sector companies and small countries like UAE and Luxembourg in the space sector has rapidly grown in the 21st century.
Participation of small countries in space sectorin 21stcentury:
Traditionally, big countries like USA, Russia, and China have remained major investors in space programmes. Other major participants in the space sector have been European nations, India and Japan. Despite being small countries, the United Arab Emirates and Luxembourg have recently increased their involvement in the space sector.
Space strategy of UAE and Luxembourg:
Growth of commercial space sector: In the second half of the 20th century, governments funded, directed and managed national space programs. With the increase in the use of space, the US gave space contracts to private companies in the aviation industry like Boeing and Lockheed. These worked as told by NASA/US. Commercial space sector grew with expansion in satellite-based telecommunication, navigation, broadcasting and mapping services in the last decades of the 20th century. In the 21st century, commercial space sector has grown to approximately 400 billion dollars. It may grow to one trillion dollars by 2040.
Increasing participation of private companies in space sectorin 21stcentury: Space X is an example of increasing participation of private companies in the space sector in the 21stcentury. The company has grown its space business from carrying a resupply mission for the space station to launching more rockets every year than launched by NASA. Now, it plans to provide space-based internet through many satellites placed in low-earth orbit. Similarly, Amazon is aiming for a network of over 3,000 low-earth orbit satellites. Space X and Amazon intend to develop space tourism and human settlements on Moon and Mars. The private sector companies in space have brought down the costs of launch by developing reusable rockets. SpaceIL, a company of Israel has sent Beresheetlander to the moon. It became the first privately funded moon lander.
Globally, the space sector has changed from the one being dominated by a few governments to one seeing increased participation by small countries and private companies. In order to sustain achievements made by its space programme and increase its share in the global space economy, India needs to encourage private companies by reforming and reorganizing its space sector.
It is said that the space sector has changed from being based on domination by governments of few countries to one being based on increased participation by small countries and private sector companies. Comment with examples. (200 words)