Daily IAS Current Affairs March 01 and 02, 2020 | PendulumIAS

2020-03-01 | 4 minutes

General Studies-III-Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

1. Changes made to the wildlife list by CMS


Recently the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) has made new changes in the list of migratory wildlife in India.


  • Scientists say that the total number of migratory organisms in India is up to 457 species.
  • The figure comprises 83% (380 species) of the highest number of birds.
  • There are 24 species of migratory fish in India.
  • Also, 46 species of mammals and 7 migratory species of reptiles are in India.
  • The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) first prepared a list of India's migratory species under the CMS Appendix before the recently held conference (COP 13) in Gujarat. The number of species in it was put at 451.
  • Six new species, the Asian elephant, the great Indian bustard, the Bengal florican, the ocean white-tip shark, the urial and the smooth hammerhead shark, were added later.
  • After this, there are now 457 species of migratory animals in India.

Role of India:

  • Globally, more than 650 species are listed by the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and India alone plays a very important role in their conservation, with over 450 species.
  • The bird family Moosicapidae has the largest number of migratory species. Raptors are the next group of migratory birds, such as eagles, owls, vultures, etc.
  • Estimates of 44 migratory mammal species in India have increased to 46 since the Convention (COP 13). The Asian elephant was added to Appendix I and Appendix II.
  • The largest group of mammals is certainly bats belonging to the family Vespertilionidae.
  • Seven reptiles, including five species of turtles and Indian crocodiles and saltwater crocodiles, are among the CMS species found in India.

Prelims Facts

Convention on Migratory Species (CMS):

  • There is an international environmental treaty, also known as the Bonn Convention.
  • The agreement was signed in 1979 in the city of Bonn, Germany, under the United Nations Environment Program.
  • It is headquartered in Bonn, Germany.
  • As a United Nations environmental treaty, the CMS provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitat.
  • Migratory species at risk of extinction are listed in Appendix I of the Convention.
  • Species that benefit greatly from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention.


General Studies-I- Indian Culture - Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Govt planning to revise list of monuments under ASI


The Union government's conservation minister Prahlad Singh Patel has said that the central government is planning to review the list of monuments under the Archaeological Survey of India.


  • The list of monuments protected by the Center has not seen enough growth in many years and important sites under the state governments can be added to the list.
  • On the other hand, some monuments can be removed from the Central list and placed under the State Governments.
  • Currently, 3,691 monuments are protected by the ASI across the country, with the highest number being 745 in Uttar Pradesh.
  • The list of centrally protected monuments can go up to 10,000. In Tamil Nadu alone, there are around 7,000 temples, many of which are hundreds of years old.
  • It is known that the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958, protects monuments and sites that are more than 100 years old.

Prelims Fact

Archaeological Survey of India (ASI):

  • The Archaeological Survey of India is the agency of the Government of India responsible for archaeological research and conservation of cultural monuments in the country.
  • It is an organization functioning under the Ministry of Culture.
  • It was founded in 1861 by Alexander Cunningham.
  • Alexander Cunningham also became its first director-general.


General Studies-III-Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

3. Water Crisis looms large in Himalayan regions


Recently the latest edition of journal Water Policy has been released.


  • The survey states that eight cities in the Himalayan region of Bangladesh, Nepal, India and Pakistan have a water supply reduction of about 20% -70%.
  • Researchers surveyed 13 cities in these countries to understand the challenges of urban areas in these regions.

Key facts related to the survey:

  • Places that have been surveyed are heavily dependent on springs for their water. Researchers warn that, under current trends, the demand-supply gap may double by 2050.
  • Although only 3% of the total Hindu Kush Himalayan population lives in big cities and 8% in small towns, estimates suggest that by 2050 more than 50% of the population will be living in cities, which could further exacerbate the water crisis.
  • Unplanned urbanization and climate change are the major factors responsible for the state of affairs.
  • A holistic water management approach in which springshade management and planned optimization can be possible ways to overcome the problem.

Mains Question

Q. What are the legal provisions to conserve the monuments in India? (125 words)